- Memory and the courts - C.E. Stark, UC Irvine
- The biology of violence and the law - A. Raine, U Penn
- The adolescent brain and implications for the juvenile justice system - A Baird, Vassar
- Addiction and the control of behavior - S. E. Hyman, Harvard
Can eyewitnesses pick out suspects?
- Dr. Hyman points out that we best recognize people we know, and showed that people of similar ages and races can more accurately pick out someone they've seen only briefly in a line-up.
- Our memories not only fade, but we fill them in with false memories (unconsciously).
- Some people believe that memories created in highly emotional situations are more accurate and less forgettable, such as where you were you when you heard about the World Trade Center on 9/11. But this seems unlikely, and two cases were presented
- >200 college students were interviewed immediately after the OJ Simpson verdict and again at 15 and 32 months. At the later timepoints, elements of their stories were classified as accurate, minorly distorted, majorly distorted relative to their original sotry, or they simply said that they didn't know certain detail. At 15 months, 40% of details/stories were accurate and a similar percentage had only minor distortions and a significant percentage of students admitted to not knowing some details. However at 32 months, most details were majorly distorted and NO ONE admitted to not knowing something. Not only were they less accurate, they were more confident!
- In a simulated POW situation, soldiers were confined and subjected to harsh interrogation. Two days later, each soldier was given a packet of pictures and asked to identify their interrogator. Some packets had a picture of their interrogator, but others had no picture of that soldiers interrogator. Yet ~70% of soldiers chose a picture that they said was their interrogator in either case.
- Psychopaths have been shown to have a reduced volume in the amygdala (which controls the "4 F's:" fight, flight, feeding and sex). Their main reduction is in areas that control the fear response/conditioning system. In a study of 1800 3-year-olds, their fear responses (a proxy for amygdala function) were measured and the children were followed for 20 years. After 20 years, 137 of them had been convicted of a crime, and (as a group) they had shown reduced fear responses at the age of 3.
- A study imaged the brains of psychopaths and controls as they answered a "moral dilemma" question. 80% of people answer the question the same way, including psychopaths. But the areas of the brain used to answer the question are different between psychopaths and controls. In normal subjects, their emotional circuits and amygdala light up. In psychopaths, their cognitive areas light up. This (and other data) implies that while psychopaths know right from wrong, they don't have a feeling of right and wrong. In situations that also show that they have reduced empathy and impulse control, how much control over their behavior do they have relative to a control subject?
- A more extreme case presented was a case of acquired pedophilia. A man with no criminal or abnormal psychological history began to collect child pornography and made sexual advances to his minor stepdaughter. He was reported and sentenced to rehabilitation or prison and picked rehab. He entered treatment, where he made sexual advances to the staff and was expelled from the program and headed to prison. Right before heading to prison he had intense headaches and suicidal ideation and was hospitalized (where he made sexual advances to medical personnel). Due to his intense headaches, he receive a brain scan where they found a large tumor! After resection of the tumor, he completed rehab successfully and returned home without issue. A few years later, he had intense headaches again and his wife found pornography on his computer. He immediately had a brain scan - and the tumor had grown again! After a second surgery, his life returned to normal. How responsible was he for his actions?
- Adolescents have immense development in the prefrontal cortex as they learn social behavior. Adult and adolescent brains were imaged as they answered whether a choice was good or bad. Adults had automatic responses (in the amygdala) very quickly. Swimming with sharks - bad. Lighting your hair on fire - bad! Adolescents mostly got the same answers, but much more slowly. And the areas of their brain involved in answering were cognitive areas, as they actually had to consider whether lighting your hair on fire is a good idea or not. As they mature, these responses become faster/more automatic.
- Additionally, juveniles are hugely influence by peer pressure. In an imaging study where some adolescents were told that their data would be visible to peers, they make worse decisions more automatically!
- Social development during adolescence lasts for life. When teenagers are incarcerated, they are socialized as prisoners, which is evident in the correlation between re-incarceration and age.
- Substance addiction overloads reward circuits and is classified as "highly valuable" by the brain, making drugs the highest reward. In rat studies, electrical stimulus of reward areas is prioritized even over food and sleep and rats can kill themselves self stimulating these pathways with a lever! Imaging of addicts shows reduced prefrontal cortex action (as in psychopaths). This means that an addict is physiologically incapable of adequately prioritizing at certain stages of drug use. Their ability to prioritize fluctuates with time since last drug dose, and a decision made at one time may not carry over to the next phase of their drug experience.
- Addiction causes permanent changes in brain structure and reward systems, which makes even recovered addicts subject to relapse in response to cues and stress.
BONUS EDIT: For further lay reading, check out this article from the Atlantic.